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Indoor Alpine Skiing

Injury Risk Reduction

Indoor Alpine Skiing

How Similar is Indoor Skiing to the Real Thing?

Wide Skis

Injury Risk Reduction

Indoor Alpine Skiing

Are Wide Skis an Injury Risk Factor?

Injury Risk Reduction

Injury Risk Reduction

Injury Risk Reduction

Is a dual lateral release ski binding PPG?

Knee-Spine Syndrome

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Injury Risk Reduction

What is the Prevalence of Knee and Low Back Issues in Professional Skiers?

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Wearable Sensors for Outdoor Measurements of Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

PSIA Technology Taskforce

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Alpine Skiing Biomechanics

Current Alpine Skiing Projects with the Professional Ski Instructors of America

indoor alpine skiing

How similar is indoor skiing to the real thing?

Bradley Davidson, PhD, a Mechanical Engineer from the University of Denver, and the RMCSR performed a two-day validation study investigating indoor and outdoor alpine skiing.

Background. Indoor carpet skiing (picture, right) provides an optimal setting to study alpine ski turning technique while controlling for environmental and surface conditions, slope inclination (pitch) and speed. However, the performance similarities between indoor and outdoor skiing are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare 3D body and leg joint motion measurements during indoor and outdoor skiing.

Recent Findings. The analysis phase for this project has only recently started.  The images below are from one participant during indoor skiing (left) at a 20 deg pitch while performing narrow turns (middle) and wide turns (right).  The middle and right figures are the 3D knee joint motions averaged over turn time for the left  (top figures) and right (bottom figures) legs.  Data reduction and subsequent comparison with outdoor skiing are currently in process.

More Scientific Resources.

1. Validation of functional calibration and strap-down joint drift correction for computing 3D joint angles of knee, hip, and trunk in alpine skiing.

2. An Inertial Sensor-Based Method for Estimating the Athlete's Relative Joint Center Positions and Center of Mass Kinematics in Alpine Ski Racing.


Video from our indoor skiing project provided by Mike Martin, MS from Qualisys.


Are wide skis an injury risk factor?

John Seifert, PhD (picture, right), an Exercise Physiologist at Montana State University, performed an alpine skiing research project at Squaw Valley with Ron Kipp PhD and the RMCSR investigating the difference in turn technique and muscle activity when using wide powder skis (>90mm underfoot width) and regulation slalom skis (~65 mm underfoot width) during skiing on a course with standardized turns.

Background. It has been widely reported that muscle activity increases when skiing on wide powder skis compared to skiing on slalom regulation skis on groomed runs. Wide skis were originally designed to be skied in powder snow conditions. In recent years, it has been observed that skiers have been using the wide skis for all conditions including groomed snow. Junior racers are commonly seen using wide skis while skiing outside of the racing and training area. A major concern is that junior skiers may be developing a technique of muscle activity patterns when skiing wide skis that may be different than the technique necessary for racing. This could lead to poor performance, increased fatigue, or injury while racing.

Recent Findings. Perceptions of performance and effort are factors that can add or detract from learning a movement. Feeling confident, being aggressive, and skiing on line was lower when performing with wide skis.  These perceptions can impact the timing and tactics of the run, perhaps by increasing  inhibition and creating less effective movements. Read more about these findings in the scientific abstract below: Seifert ECSS 2019

More Scientific Resources.

1. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing

2. Does Ski Width Influence Muscle Action in an Elite Skier? A Case Study.


1. Watch Dr. Seifert's presentation on wide skis


Personal protective gear (PPG) for alpine skiing

Alpine Ski Binding with Dual Lateral Release Mechanisms

Background. Workplace injury rates, worker compensation costs and additional medical and administrative costs, including physical rehabilitation and the training or hiring of additional employees, places an estimated $85.1 million economic burden on the 481 U.S. ski areas.  This annual burden has amplified the need for better ski equipment that limits the injurious forces applied to the body during twisting falls with or without an accompanying collision (ie, obstacle, another skier).  

A novel ski binding designed with a dual lateral release mechanism (KneeBinding Inc., Stowe, VT) may limit these injurious forces by increasing the probability of the boot releasing from the ski during a twisting fall and thus provide a practical solution for reducing workplace injuries.  The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a novel, commercially available ski binding on injury risk in professional ski instructors. 

A total of 170 professional ski instructors from three ski areas located in the Rocky Mountains participated in a prospective randomized controlled research study investigating the effects of ski bindings with a single (LR1) versus  dual (LR2) lateral release mechanism on injury risk over two consecutive ski seasons (2016-2017 and 2017-2018).

Recent Findings. The results of this study found a commercially available ski binding with a dual lateral release mechanism can reduce workplace injuries in the ski industry.  Ski instructors were found to have a 3.6 and 4.8 times lower risk of body and knee injury events compared to ski instructors not using this intervention product. These results are encouraging and may have implications for both ski instructors and ski areas.

More Scientific Resources.

1. Effect of Alpine Ski Bindings with Single versus Dual Lateral Release Mechanisms on Injury Risk in Professional Ski Instructors. (Coming Soon)

2. Website:


knee-spine syndrome

Knee-Spine Syndrome in Professional Skiers

A previous knee injury is the primary risk factor of osteoarthritis of the knee. The progressive decline in knee function leading to OA is characterized by increased levels of activity related knee pain and reductions in knee motion. Altered knee motions and pain has been shown to lead to postural changes in the low back and pelvis eventually leading to low back pain. The coexistence of low back and knee pain has been termed knee-spine syndrome and may predispose an individual to increased symptom severity well beyond the situation of isolated knee pain. Given the high prevalence of knee and low back pain in snow sports instructors, it is plausible to suggest that this population is high-risk for the developing knee-spine syndrome. However, the coexistence of low back and knee pain in the general population of snow sports instructors is currently unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence (history) and point prevalence (current) of activity related low back and knee pain in snow sports instructors.


Alpine Skiing biomechanics

Wearable Sensors for Motion Measurement

Coming soon


Ground Reaction Forces

Ground Reaction Forces

Ground Reaction Forces


The average vertical ground reaction force (top) and the center of pressure (fore-aft, middle; medial-lateral, bottom) for two ski conditions during the four phases of an alpine ski turn.

Joint Kinematics

Ground Reaction Forces

Ground Reaction Forces


The average knee angle for two conditions during during the four phases of an alpine ski turn.

Joint Kinetics

Ground Reaction Forces

Joint Kinetics


The hip and knee joint moments for two conditions during a double ski turn.

PSIA Technology taskforce

RMCSR Joins the PSIA Technology Taskforce

Members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America (PSIA), Microsoft and the RMCSR joined forces to perform collaborative research to study alpine ski biomechanics and enhance the instruction and education programs of the PSIA. Video (below) with visualizations of the body's center of mass during alpine skiing created by Ron LeMaster.



Click on a file to download.